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Arduino Motor Shield

The following example demonstrates the use of an Arduino shield from the Rasperry Pi.

The shield used is a clone of the Adafruit motor shield.  See shieldlist.org for details.

For the demonstration DC motors 3 and 4 are being driven forwards and backwards with changing speeds (speeds are controlled via PWM).

Seven connections are made between the Pi and the shield.  Four to latch the motor states (latch, enable, data, clock); Two to control motor speed (PWM 3 and 4); and ground.

The code used was ported from the Adafruit Arduino code and converted to use the pigpio library.  Only the DC motor code was ported.

A video of the shield in use is available at youtube.com

#include <stdio.h>


#include <pigpio.h>

/*
   This code may be used to drive the Adafruit (or clones) Motor Shield.

   The code as written only supports DC motors.

   http://shieldlist.org/adafruit/motor

   The shield pinouts are

   D12 MOTORLATCH
   D11 PMW motor 1
   D10 Servo 1
   D9  Servo 2
   D8  MOTORDATA

   D7  MOTORENABLE
   D6  PWM motor 4
   D5  PWM motor 3
   D4  MOTORCLK
   D3  PWM motor 2

   The motor states (forward, backward, brake, release) are encoded using the
   MOTOR_ latch pins.  This saves four gpios.
*/

typedef unsigned char uint8_t;

#define BIT(bit) (1 << (bit))

/* assign gpios to drive the shield pins */

/*      Shield      Pi */

#define MOTORLATCH  14
#define MOTORCLK    24
#define MOTORENABLE 25
#define MOTORDATA   15

#define MOTOR_3_PWM  7
#define MOTOR_4_PWM  8

/*
   The only other connection needed between the Pi and the shield
   is ground to ground. I used Pi P1-6 to shield gnd (next to D13).
*/

/* assignment of motor states to latch */

#define MOTOR1_A 2
#define MOTOR1_B 3
#define MOTOR2_A 1
#define MOTOR2_B 4
#define MOTOR4_A 0
#define MOTOR4_B 6
#define MOTOR3_A 5
#define MOTOR3_B 7

#define FORWARD  1
#define BACKWARD 2
#define BRAKE    3
#define RELEASE  4

static uint8_t latch_state;

void latch_tx(void)
{
   unsigned char i;

   gpioWrite(MOTORLATCH, PI_LOW);

   gpioWrite(MOTORDATA, PI_LOW);

   for (i=0; i<8; i++)
   {
      gpioDelay(10);  // 10 micros delay

      gpioWrite(MOTORCLK, PI_LOW);

      if (latch_state & BIT(7-i)) gpioWrite(MOTORDATA, PI_HIGH);
      else                        gpioWrite(MOTORDATA, PI_LOW);

      gpioDelay(10);  // 10 micros delay

      gpioWrite(MOTORCLK, PI_HIGH);
   }

   gpioWrite(MOTORLATCH, PI_HIGH);
}

void init(void)
{
   latch_state = 0;

   latch_tx();

   gpioWrite(MOTORENABLE, PI_LOW);
}

void DCMotorInit(uint8_t num)
{
   switch (num)
   {
      case 1: latch_state &= ~BIT(MOTOR1_A) & ~BIT(MOTOR1_B); break;
      case 2: latch_state &= ~BIT(MOTOR2_A) & ~BIT(MOTOR2_B); break;
      case 3: latch_state &= ~BIT(MOTOR3_A) & ~BIT(MOTOR3_B); break;
      case 4: latch_state &= ~BIT(MOTOR4_A) & ~BIT(MOTOR4_B); break;
      default: return;
   }

   latch_tx();

   printf("Latch=%08X\n", latch_state);
}

void DCMotorRun(uint8_t motornum, uint8_t cmd)
{
   uint8_t a, b;

   switch (motornum)
   {
      case 1: a = MOTOR1_A; b = MOTOR1_B; break;
      case 2: a = MOTOR2_A; b = MOTOR2_B; break;
      case 3: a = MOTOR3_A; b = MOTOR3_B; break;
      case 4: a = MOTOR4_A; b = MOTOR4_B; break;
      default: return;
   }
 
   switch (cmd)
   {
      case FORWARD:  latch_state |=  BIT(a); latch_state &= ~BIT(b); break;
      case BACKWARD: latch_state &= ~BIT(a); latch_state |=  BIT(b); break;
      case RELEASE:  latch_state &= ~BIT(a); latch_state &= ~BIT(b); break;
      default: return;
   }

   latch_tx();

   printf("Latch=%08X\n", latch_state);
}

int main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
   int i;

   if (gpioInitialise()<0) return 1;

   gpioSetMode(MOTORLATCH,  PI_OUTPUT);
   gpioSetMode(MOTORENABLE, PI_OUTPUT);
   gpioSetMode(MOTORDATA,   PI_OUTPUT);
   gpioSetMode(MOTORCLK,    PI_OUTPUT);

   gpioSetMode(MOTOR_3_PWM, PI_OUTPUT);
   gpioSetMode(MOTOR_4_PWM, PI_OUTPUT);

   gpioPWM(MOTOR_3_PWM, 0);
   gpioPWM(MOTOR_4_PWM, 0);

   init();

   for (i=60; i<160; i+=20)
   {
      gpioPWM(MOTOR_3_PWM, i);
      gpioPWM(MOTOR_4_PWM, 220-i);

      DCMotorRun(3, FORWARD);
      DCMotorRun(4, BACKWARD);

      sleep(2);

      DCMotorRun(3, RELEASE);
      DCMotorRun(4, RELEASE);

      sleep(2);

      gpioPWM(MOTOR_4_PWM, i);
      gpioPWM(MOTOR_3_PWM, 220-i);

      DCMotorRun(3, BACKWARD);
      DCMotorRun(4, FORWARD);

      sleep(2);

      DCMotorRun(3, RELEASE);
      DCMotorRun(4, RELEASE);

      sleep(2);
   }

   gpioPWM(MOTOR_4_PWM, 0);
   gpioPWM(MOTOR_3_PWM, 0);

   DCMotorRun(3, RELEASE);
   DCMotorRun(4, RELEASE);

   gpioTerminate();
}

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Updated: 20/03/2018